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In order to earn hard currency, the Soviet Union sold primarily grain and forestry products, at  the same time assuring the West that there was no famine in the USSR.

There were forces in the West, however, that knew the famine was no fabrication. Information, particularly about the situation in Ukraine, was being transmitted primarily through diplomatic channels. For example, on 31 May 1933 the Italian consul in Kharkiv Sergio Gradenigo sent a dispatch in which he wrote: "Famine is continuing to rampage and destroy people, and it is simply impossible to comprehend how the world can remain indifferent to such a disaster...”52

On 21 October 1933 the Moscow correspondent of the British newspaper Manchester Guardian, wrote: "As for the question of hunger, no honest and open-eyed observer in those villages which I personally visited would either assert that there is hunger now or deny that there had been hunger, and a good deal of it, in the early months of the year, especially in April and May... It can be definitely stated that no provinces within a radius of several hundred miles of Moscow experienced the Ukrainian and North Caucasian extremities.''53

What made the situation in Ukraine radically different from what was happening, say, in Russia or Kazakhstan, were changes in the national policy. On 14 December 1932 Stalin and Molotov signed a resolution of the CC of the All-Union Communist Party (b) and the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR in connection with the execution of the grain procurement campaign. This document stipulated the "correct implementation of Ukrainization" in Ukraine and beyond its borders in regions densely settled by Ukrainians. The document also included a categorical imperative to wage a struggle against Petliurite and other "counter-revolutionary" elements. This spelled the end of the limited policy of "Ukrainization" and the beginning of anti-Ukrainian purges.

This was confirmed by the events of 1933, when cadre changes took place in the party-state leadership of the Ukrainian SSR. The most important change was the appointment of Pavel Postyshev as second secretary of the CC CP(b)U and first secretary of the Kharkiv oblast party committee of the CP(b)U. Postyshev simultaneously retained his post as secretary of the CC of the All-


52 "Holodomor: teror Moskvy proty ukrainskoi natsii" [Famine-Genocide/Holodomor: Moscow's Terror against the Ukrainian Nation], Rozbudova derzhavy, No. 4, 1992, p. 14.

53 “The Soviet Countryside: A Tour of Inquiry,” Manchester Guardian, 21 October 1933, p.14. After Malcolm Muggeridge left the Guardian, William Henry Chamberlin became the Moscow correspondent for both the Manchester Guardian and the Christian Science Monitor. The series in the Guardian is attributed to “our Moscow Correspondent.” In 1933 the Ukrainian Press Bureau in London summarized this five-pan series in a press release that it sent out to such Ukrainian newspapers as Dilo and Novyi chas. The press release is cited in Shapoval, Nevyhadani istorii, pp. 84-5.

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