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Union Communist Party (b). Newly discovered archival materials indicate that throughout 1933 Postyshev and his "team" (his closest associates, as well as party workers who had come from Russia for "support") implemented the Kremlin's economic line for obtaining grain, and carried out a large-scale purge of Petliurites and Ukrainian nationalists from all social spheres. The latter were soon accused of organizing the famine.

In his speech at the joint Plenum of the CC and the Central Control Commission of the CP(b)U in November 1933 Postyshev drew up a political summary of the events of 1932-1933. Underlining the fact that collective farms in Ukraine had been turned into Bolshevik ones, he also emphasized that "errors and shortcomings committed by the CP(b)U in implementing the party's national policy were one of the chief causes of the decline in Ukrainian agriculture in 1931 - 1932. There is no doubt that without the liquidation of errors in the implementation of the party's national policy, without the crushing defeat of nationalistic elements that had lodged themselves in various areas of social construction in Ukraine, it would have been impossible to liquidate the lag in its agriculture.''54

The Plenum approved a resolution that noted, "[A]t the present moment the chief danger is local nationalism that is uniting with imperialist interventionists." This "present moment" would be extended over a period of many years, thus legitimizing the rollback of the Ukrainization policy and the beginning of the campaign of mass repressions, which in Ukraine began as early as 1933, in time becoming an organic part of the history of Yezhov's "Great Terror" of 1936-1938.

To summarize, archival documents that have been uncovered in the last few years incontrovertibly attest to the fact that the famine-genocide was a desirable and effective device for transforming Ukraine into a "model republic," to use Stalin's euphemism. According to these new documents, the actions of the Stalinist regime reveal special anti-Ukrainian accents, whose significance and profound consequences will serve to expand the range of scholarly discourse on the Holodomor.

Yurii SHAPOVAL
Professor, Doctor of Historical Sciences
Institute of Political and Ethnic Studies,
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Kyiv)

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54 P. P. Postyshev, “Radianska Ukraina--nepokhytnyi forpost velykoho SRSR,” [Soviet Ukraine--The Unshakeable Forepost of the Great USSR], Chervonyi shliakh, No. 10, 1933, p. 245.

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